Is there any original theory or any theory at all in TDP?

Advanced methods and approaches for solving Sudoku puzzles

Re: Is there any original theory or any theory at all in TDP

denis_berthier wrote:No, what I show is exactly what I've written; i.e. the equality: P'(E2) is the union of all the P(Ak), Ak in E1. It's amazing that you're unable to understand such an elementary proof!

So I will read your demonstration more carefully.
Mauriès Robert

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Re: Is there any original theory or any theory at all in TDP

Hi Denis,
You write earlier in this thread:
For a puzzle with a single solution, this has the unfortunate consequence that any track is:
- either the set of all the candidates (inconsistent puzzle);
- or the set of all the candidates that are true in the solution.

So you agree that an invalid track can contain two candidates from the same cell, which to me is normal.

If so, it is easy to construct an example that contradicts the following statement in the proof that Th. 2-1 is false:
One of the candidates A, B, C... is in P(A B C...) iff this candidate is a consequence in TR (TB) of each of the other ones separately.
This is obviously impossible (unless the puzzle is contradictory) when E is a subset of an undecided 2D-cell ("entity" in Robert's vocabulary).

Here is this example, using the set E1={1r7c9, 7r7c9} : ( -> with memory effect )
P(1r7c9) : 1r7c9->3r9c9->2r9c8->2r5c3->5r5c2->5r9c1->47r9c46->8r9c2->8r7c5->8r3c7->7r6c7->7r3c8->7r7c9->... invalid track
P(7r7c9) : 7r7c9->3r9c9->2r9c8->2r5c3->5r5c2->5r9c1->47r9c46->8r9c2->8r7c5->8r3c7->7r6c7->7r3c8->7r7c9->... invalid track

It seems to me that your statement is only correct for valid tracks.

Robert
Mauriès Robert

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Re: Is there any original theory or any theory at all in TDP

Mauriès Robert wrote:You write earlier in this thread:
For a puzzle with a single solution, this has the unfortunate consequence that any track is:
- either the set of all the candidates (inconsistent puzzle);
- or the set of all the candidates that are true in the solution.

So you agree that an invalid track can contain two candidates from the same cell, which to me is normal.

Note that, at this point, we were talking of tracks based on a single candidate.
It's cristal clear: an invalid track can exist only when the puzzle is invalid or (I missed this case, and you don't even notice it) when it starts from a false candidate).
But all this has no bearing on the independent topic of tracks based on several candidates. You're deliberately mixing everything.

Mauriès Robert wrote:If so, it is easy to construct an example that contradicts the following statement in the proof that Th. 2-1 is false:
One of the candidates A, B, C... is in P(A B C...) iff this candidate is a consequence in TR (TB) of each of the other ones separately.
This is obviously impossible (unless the puzzle is contradictory) when E is a subset of an undecided 2D-cell ("entity" in Robert's vocabulary).

It seems to me that your statement is only correct for valid tracks.

There are two statements. Are you challenging the first?
The second one explicit excludes invalid puzzles.
Out of charity, I will not comment your "example".

Once more, are you unable to understand my elementary proof, based only on your definitions and elementary Boolean algebra, not only that your proof of theorem 2.1 is false, but that the theorem itself is false?
Last edited by denis_berthier on Sat Jan 29, 2022 6:16 am, edited 2 times in total.
denis_berthier
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Re: Is there any original theory or any theory at all in TDP

Mauriès Robert wrote:
denis_berthier wrote:No, what I show is exactly what I've written; i.e. the equality: P'(E2) is the union of all the P(Ak), Ak in E1. It's amazing that you're unable to understand such an elementary proof!

So I will read your demonstration more carefully.

Why don't you finish reading this before trying to invent new phoney ways out?
denis_berthier
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Re: Is there any original theory or any theory at all in TDP

Hi Denis,
If according to you I am mixing everything up, it is not deliberately as you say. I am trying to understand because some aspects of your demonstration raise questions for me.
You write: "P'(E2) is the union of all the P(Ak), Ak in E1."
If this is true, then P'(E2) contains all the Ak candidates in E1 since every P(Ak) contains Ak, so P'(E2) is invalid.
So your demonstration shows that any anti-track from E2 in an E1/E2 partition of an entity where E1 contains at least 2 candidates is invalid, which is obviously false.
So where is the anomaly: in your demonstration or in what I deduce from it?
Robert

 I think I have identified the reason, in my opinion, for this anomaly in your demonstration which I recall:
By definition, P'(E2) is defined by X ∊ P'(E2) if the elimination of all elements of E2 allows to prove X in TR (TB)
i.e. X ∊ P'(E2) if disjunction of all elements of E1 implies X in TR (TB)
i.e. X ∊ P'(E2) if (A or B or C...) => X
i.e. X ∊ P'(E2) if A=>X or B=>X or C=>X...
i.e. X ∊ P'(E2) iff X ∊ P(A) or X ∊ P(B) or X ∊ P(C) ...

Why "iff" in the last assertion when in the previous ones it is "if" ?
Mauriès Robert

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Re: Is there any original theory or any theory at all in TDP

Mauriès Robert wrote:Hi Denis,
If according to you I am mixing everything up, it is not deliberately as you say. I am trying to understand because some aspects of your demonstration raise questions for me.
You write: "P'(E2) is the union of all the P(Ak), Ak in E1."
If this is true, then P'(E2) contains all the Ak candidates in E1 since every P(Ak) contains Ak, so P'(E2) is invalid.
So your demonstration shows that any anti-track from E2 in an E1/E2 partition of an entity where E1 contains at least 2 candidates is invalid, which is obviously false.
So where is the anomaly: in your demonstration or in what I deduce from it?
Robert

 I think I have identified the reason, in my opinion, for this anomaly in your demonstration which I recall:
By definition, P'(E2) is defined by X ∊ P'(E2) if the elimination of all elements of E2 allows to prove X in TR (TB)
i.e. X ∊ P'(E2) if disjunction of all elements of E1 implies X in TR (TB)
i.e. X ∊ P'(E2) if (A or B or C...) => X
i.e. X ∊ P'(E2) if A=>X or B=>X or C=>X...
i.e. X ∊ P'(E2) iff X ∊ P(A) or X ∊ P(B) or X ∊ P(C) ...

Why "iff" in the last assertion when in the previous ones it is "if" ?

It's iff everywhere. Will you stop this kind of ridiculous cheating? Anyone can check what I've written,.
denis_berthier
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Re: Is there any original theory or any theory at all in TDP

denis_berthier wrote:
Mauriès Robert wrote:It's iff everywhere. Will you stop this kind of ridiculous cheating? Anyone can check what I've written,.

No, these are not ridiculous remarks.
There is a difference in the conclusion depending on whether it is iff or if. With if the conclusion is that P'(E2) is only included in the union of P(Ak) with the consequence that you cannot write that P(E1) is included in P'(E2).
For example if P'(E2) is valid, it is impossible that P'(E2) is equal to the union of P(Ak).
Mauriès Robert

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Re: Is there any original theory or any theory at all in TDP

Mauriès Robert wrote:
denis_berthier wrote:
Mauriès Robert wrote:It's iff everywhere. Will you stop this kind of ridiculous cheating? Anyone can check what I've written,.

No, these are not ridiculous remarks.
There is a difference in the conclusion depending on whether it is iff or if. With if the conclusion is that P'(E2) is only included in the union of P(Ak) with the consequence that you cannot write that P(E1) is included in P'(E2).
For example if P'(E2) is valid, it is impossible that P'(E2) is equal to the union of P(Ak).

It's not "if"". It has always been "iff", even in your previous citations. I wonder how the second "f" can have been deleted 3 times in different lines in your last citation, if not deliberately.
denis_berthier
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Re: Is there any original theory or any theory at all in TDP

denis_berthier wrote:It's not "if"". It has always been "iff", even in your previous citations. I wonder how the second "f" can have been deleted 3 times in different lines in your last citation, if not deliberately.

Indeed, I don't know how the iff's were transformed into if's, yet I copy and paste ???

For me, for P'(E2), you need ifs everywhere, not iffs, and that's where the anomaly comes from.
So the anomaly that I see and that you haven't answered comes from there.
I remind you of this anomaly:
If: "P'(E2) is the union of all P(Ak), Ak in E1."
then P'(E2) contains all candidates Ak in E1 since all P(Ak) contain Ak, so P'(E2) is invalid.
Your demonstration therefore shows that any anti-track of E2 in an E1/E2 partition of an entity where E1 contains at least 2 candidates is invalid, which is obviously false.
Mauriès Robert

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Re: Is there any original theory or any theory at all in TDP

.
I made a stupid error in a Boolean manipulation in a previous post. My apologies to all for not finding it earlier and causing lots of useless debates.
Finding such a stupid error is never good for the ego, but I console myself by thinking that:
- only those who do nothing never make any error (except precisely doing nothing);
- I'm the one who found it;
- I got the new Dune DVD to watch.

Here is the correct version of the full post (changes appear only in part 4).

Let me propose a different proof of François's proposition that a track based on a subset E of an entity does not necessarily contain some candidate from this set.

It will not suppose the existence of several solutions.
It will require only trivial boolean logic.

1) I shall prove something much stronger:
Theorem: a track based on an arbitrary set E of candidates contains a candidate A0 iff for each candidate Ak≠A0 in E, A0 is a consequence of Ak in TR (TB).
(Note that:
- E doesn't have to be a subset of any entity;
- A0 doesn't have to be in E;
- the result is true even in the trivial cases where E contains only 1 or 2 elements
- no hypothesis is made on the number of solutions of the puzzle.)

If you think of it in pure logic terms, cleaned of all the useless definitions, you will realise that it is totally obvious.

"iff" means "if and only if".
Let A, B, C, D... be any candidates.
I'll write "A=>B" to mean that B can be derived from A within TR (i.e. within TB, in the only interpretation of TR that makes sense).
By the definition of a track P(A), B ∊ P(A) merely means A=>B.

Proof of the theorem:
By definition, P(A B C...) = P(A) ∩ P(B) ∩ P(C)...,
i.e. A0 ∊ P(A B C...) iff A0 ∊ P(A) and A0 ∊ P(B) and A0 ∊ P(C)...
i.e. A0 ∊ P(A B C...) iff A=>A0 and B=>A0 and C=>A0...
qed

2) In particular:
A ∊ P(A B C...) iff A=>A and B=>A and C=>A iff B=>A and C=>A ...
B ∊ P(A B C...) iff A=>B and B=>B and C=>B iff A=>B and C=>B ...
C ∊ P(A B C...) iff A=>C and B=>C and C=>C iff A=>C and B=>C ...
...
Therefore, one of the candidates A, B, C... is in P(A B C...) iff this candidate is a consequence in TR (TB) of each of the other ones separately.

This is obviously impossible (unless the puzzle is contradictory) when E is a subset of an undecided 2D-cell ("entity" in Robert's vocabulary).

3) Corollary: whether Robert's theorem 2.1 is true or not, its proof is false.
This doesn't say anything about theorem 2.1 being true or false.

4) But we can go further if we take TR = FOL (Thanks Defise for noticing this restriction):
Theorem 2.1: Let TR=FOL (not a resolution theory) and let E1, E2 form a partition of a 2D-cell ("entity"), with E1 and E2 non-empty. Then P'(E2) = P(E1)

Proof. Let E1 = A, B, C, ... and let E2 be its complement in some 2D-cell ("entity"), where none of E1 or E2 is empty.
By definition, P'(E2) is defined by X ∊ P'(E2) iff eliminating all the elements of E2 allows to prove X in TR (TB)
i.e. X ∊ P'(E2) iff the disjunction of all the elements in E1 implies X in TR (TB)
i.e. X ∊ P'(E2) iff (A or B or C...) => X
i.e. X ∊ P'(E2) iff A=>X and B=>X and C=>X... (The equivalence with the previous expression is valid only in FOL)
i.e. X ∊ P'(E2) iff X ∊ P(A) and X ∊ P(B) and X ∊ P(C) ...
i.e. X ∊ P'(E2) iff X ∊ P(E1)
qed

Remark:
Some may be surprised by this statement after my (erroneous) proof that it was false. But logic is logic.
I was the one who challenged the theorem. I'm the one who finally proves it in the context of FOL (totally useless for the "theory" of tracks).
.
Last edited by denis_berthier on Sun Jan 30, 2022 7:06 am, edited 2 times in total.
denis_berthier
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Re: Is there any original theory or any theory at all in TDP

Hi Denis,
What is certain is that it does not work with the only TB:

Puzzle 496 of assistant-sudoku :
9..54.6.....2...7..6...3..5.1.......4.8.7.1.9.9.....5.6..4...9..7...2.....1.89..3
We place 2 singles: 9r8c3, 4r9c2

P(7r6c7) = {7r6c7,7r9c4, 7r7c9, 6r9c8, 7r1c6}
P(8r6c7) = {8r6c7,7r9c4, 6r9c8, 7r1c6}
E1 = 234r6c7 E2 = 78r6c7
P ’(E1) is empty. (removing 234r6c7 allows no TB)
P(E2) = P(7r6c7) ∩ P(8r6c7) = {7r9c4, 6r9c8, 7r1c6}
Last edited by DEFISE on Sat Jan 29, 2022 2:27 pm, edited 1 time in total.
DEFISE

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Re: Is there any original theory or any theory at all in TDP

DEFISE wrote:Hi Denis,
What is certain is that it does not work with the only TB:

Hi François,
Right, I was thinking in terms of FOL applied to Sudoku, but in a restricted resolution theory, we don't necessarily have (A or B or C...) => X equivalent to A=>X and B=>X and C=>X... (as I use it in section 4).
denis_berthier
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Re: Is there any original theory or any theory at all in TDP

On the other hand, I think it’s difficult to prove a lot of things in TDP, since we do not know what P(A) is exactly when
assume A true => contradiction”.
Indeed there is not only one way to reach a contradiction.
Last edited by DEFISE on Sat Jan 29, 2022 3:56 pm, edited 2 times in total.
DEFISE

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Re: Is there any original theory or any theory at all in TDP

DEFISE wrote:On the other hand, I think it’s difficult to demonstrate a lot of things in TDP, since we do not know what P(A) is exactly when
assume A true => contradiction”.
Indeed there is not only one way to reach a contradiction.

I'm not sure what you're talking about.
If A is a candidate, P(A) the set of all the values that can be asserted by TB.
If we apply the full power of FOL (as is necessary in section 4 of my preceding post) or if TB has the confluence property (a condition Robert never mentions), this is precisely defined.
I don't know what “assume A true => contradiction” means. In what context does this appear?
denis_berthier
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Re: Is there any original theory or any theory at all in TDP

denis_berthier wrote:.
I made a stupid error in a Boolean manipulation in a previous post. My apologies to all for not finding it earlier and causing lots of useless debates.
Finding such a stupid error is never good for the ego, but I console myself by thinking that:
- only those who do nothing never make any error (except precisely doing nothing);
- I'm the one who found it;
- I got the new Dune DVD to watch.

Hi Denis,
It is good to have recognised an error in your demonstration invalidating Theorem 2-1, but it is even better to recognise that without my instance of saying that there was an anomaly you would not have noticed and would have persisted in invalidating this theorem.
That said, while I am satisfied that you conclude that Theorem 2-1 is valid, I have difficulty understanding your demonstration. We can talk about it if you wish.
Robert
Mauriès Robert

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